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Lecturer :  Prof. Ben Kilminster 
Lectures ( PHY127.1 ): 
Friday, 08:00  09:45 
Exercise sessions ( PHY127.2 ):  Tuesday or Wednesday, 13:00  15:45 (First : 28th Feb 2023) 
Office Hours  Fridays 11:4513:00 at 36J50 or by email appointment 
Here is a reference sheet (PDF, 95 KB)(handed out in class with key terms from PHY117, and german/english translation)
Texts:
Formelsammlung Mittelschulphysik (PDF, 396 KB) is also useful for usage of basic formulas.
Exercises are posted on OLAT every 2 weeks on Friday after lecture.
Exercise sessions in the following week will help you understand the terms and concepts of the exercises. Exercise sessions in the second week after the exercises are assigned will explain the solutions. It is expected that you will complete the exercises before this second exercise session.
There will be no podcasts of exercise classes.
Exam guidelines :
Exams will be similar in style to the exercises. A formula sheet with all needed equations will be provided to you in the exams. The formula sheet will be sent to you by the end of the semester to help you study. We will provide you with paper and a calculator if needed. The final exam will be printed in english and in german. The following are forbidden in exams :
Exam date: 30.06.2023, 14:00  16:00
Exam review: 12.07.2023 (primarily for those who have not passed)
Repeat exam date: 15.09.2023, 14:00  16:00
Your grade is based on the following assessments :
Attendance is expected and recorded for exercise sessions. The final examination will be composed of questions similar to those presented in the lectures and the weekly exercises.
The course will cover modern physics topics such as relativity, quantum physics, atomic, nuclear, and particle physics, radiation, particlewave duality, particles interacting in matter, particle detection. These ideas will be used to explain the basics of modern radiation techniques for diagnostics and treatment, and such instruments as Xrays, CT scanners, PET scanners, NMR, MRI, etc.
Lecture schedule (12 lectures)  Topics  PDF of chalkboard  Additional resources 

Week 1 (Feb. 24, 2023) 
Intro, units, reminder of forces, and force balancing. 
See additional resources linked above.  
Week 2 (Mar.3, 2023) 
Electromagnetic radiation.  PHY127FS2023L2 (PDF, 7 MB)  See PHY121 script, chapters 13,18,&19 for more on waves, the power of heat of EM radiation. 
Week 3 (Mar. 10, 2023)  But are photons particles or waves ?  PHY127FS2023L3 (PDF, 12 MB) 
See Thornton & Rex, "Modern Physics", chapter 3, available online. 
Week 4 (Mar. 17, 2023) 
Waves, standing waves, probabilities  See Script 1 chapter 12 on harmonic oscillators, and script 2 chapter 12 on waves.  
Week 5 (Mar. 24, 2023) 
Waveparticle duality, wave packets, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger wave equation  PHY127FS2023L5.pdf (PDF, 10 MB) 
See script sectipon 12.1.2 & 12.1.3 for smallangle approximation, more on waves in chapter 13. Wavediffraction (GIF, 592 KB), Wavediffractionbigaperture (GIF, 276 KB), wavepacket (GIF, 3 MB) , groupandphasevelocity (GIF, 1 MB) 
Week 6 (Mar. 31, 2023) 
The quantum nature of electrons in an atom, and emitted light. Standing waves. Particle in a 3D box. 
PHY127FS2023L6.pdf (PDF, 2 MB) 
Videos shown on standing waves on a 2D drum: StandingWavedrum1 (GIF, 191 KB) StandingWavedrum2 (GIF, 190 KB) StandingWavedrum3 (GIF, 115 KB) StandingWavedrum4 (GIF, 214 KB) StandingWavedrum5 (GIF, 138 KB) StandingWavedrum6 (GIF, 245 KB)

Holiday April 7th 


Holiday April 14th  
Week 7 (Apr. 21, 2023) 
Hydrogen atom in 3D, with 3 quantum numbers. Angular momentum. Standing waves.  PHY127FS2023L7.pdf (PDF, 3 MB)  For more information, see script 1 on angular momentum, and script 2 on magnetic moment. 
Week 8 (April 28, 2023)

Manyelectron atoms, charge screening, Xrays, Bremsstrahlung, Characteristic Xrays, Thomson scattering, Compton effect, Bragg's law  PHY127FS2023L8 (PDF, 5 MB)  
Week 9 (May 5, 2023)

Xray penetration, attenuation, radiation dose, exposure dose, biological effects of radiation, CT scans with Xrays, pair production, pair annihilation, PET scans  PHY127FS2023L9.pdf (PDF, 26 MB)  
Week 10 (May 12, 2023) 
microCT, nanoCT, phasecontrast imaging, Fresnel plate focusing, synchrotron accelerators, Xray synchrotron imaging, Xray free electron laser imaging  PHY127FS2023L10.pdf (PDF, 53 MB)  See videos in videopodcast. (No videos available in PDF) 
Week 11 (May 19, 2023)  Angular momentum, precession of spinning object in gravity, precession of magnet in magnetic field, nuclear magnetic moment, nuclear magnetic resonance  PHY127FS2023L11.pdf (PDF, 5 MB)  
Week 12 (May 26, 2023)

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), strong nuclear force, nuclear structure  PHY127FS2023L12.pdf (PDF, 27 MB)  More on solenoids (sec. 8.2), and induced currents due to changing magnetic moments (sec. 8.3) in script. 
Week 13 (June 2, 2023)  Nuclear stability, nuclear decay, alpha, beta, gamma radiation. Decay series chains. Half lives. BetheBloch energy loss. Dose delivered. Nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion.  PHY127FS2023L13v2 (PDF, 32 MB) 