PHY425

Modern Microscopy with light and electrons

Tentative table of contents

1. Introduction to wave optics
1.1 Wave equation and solutions: Plane, cylindrical, spherical waves.
1.2 Huygens-Fresnel principle.
1.3 Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, near field and far field.
1.4 Diffraction on rectangular and circular apertures.
1.5 Fourier pairs.
1.6 Interference.
1.7 Diffraction on periodical structure, Bragg conditions
1.8 Coherence: spatial and temporal coherence. Degree of coherence. Partial coherence. Measurement of coherence.
 
2. Optical and electron microscopes
2.1 Lens and aberrations.
2.2 Compound lens systems.
2.3 Aberrations.
2.4 Point-spread function.
2.5 Resolution criteria.
2.6 Absorption and phase properties of samples, transmission function.
2.7 Dark field and phase contrast microscopy in light optical and electron microscopes.
2.8 Schlieren imaging.
 
3. Super-resolution optical microscopy
3.1 Confocal microscopy.
3.2 Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM).
3.3 Structured illumination microscopy (SIM).
 
4. Super-resolution optical microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy
4.1 Fluorescence probes.
4.2 Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.
4.3 Two-photon microscopy.
4.4 4Pi microscopy.
4.5 Light sheet sectioning.
4.6 Single molecule detection
 
5. Electron microscopy
5.1 Electron-matter interaction, transmission function of sample
5.2 Electron scattering. Kinematic and dynamic diffraction.
5.3 Elastic and inelastic scattering.
5.4 Atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy.
5.5 Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM).
5.6 Imaging biological samples and radiation damage, cryo EM.
5.7 Light-electron correlative microscopy.
 
6. Holography
6.1 Holography principle.
6.2 Gabor (in-line) holography.
6.3 Off-axis light optical holography.
6.4 Holography in light microscope.
6.5 Electron off-axis holography and biprism.
6.6 Electron in-line holography and point-projection microscopy.
6.7 Electron holography for material science and biological imaging.
6.8 Coherence in electron microscope. Measurement of spatial coherence.
 
7. Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) - lensless imaging technique
7.1 Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem.
7.2 Oversampling and zero-padding.
7.3 Phase problem.
7.4 Iterative phase retrieval.
7.5 Examples of CDI with X-rays, electrons and light.
7.6 CDI for single molecule imaging, introduction to XFELs.
7.7 Comparison between holography and CDI.
7.8 Bragg CD; Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED).
 
8. Ptychography and other diffraction-related techniques
8.1 Fresnel coherent diffraction imaging.
8.2 Fourier transform holography (FTH).
8.3 Ptychography: concept and examples with light, X-ray and electron waves.
 
9. Introduction to time-resolved experiments
9.1 Principles of pump-probe experiment, pulsed sources.
9.2 Ultrafast electron diffraction.
9.3 Time-resolved XFEL experiments for material science and biology
 
10. Dynamic light scattering and multiple scattering
10.1. DLS in the single scattering regime
10.2. Multiple scattering: Diffusing wave spectroscopy
10.3. Wave-front shaping using spatial light modulators